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IV Types of Audio-Visual Aids to Instruction IT should be noted that the preceding discussion of aids to teaching was placed in two general groups—types of visual aids, and types of sound aids. In the former, consideration was given to pictorial or graphic aids of all types. In the latter group, consideration was given to sound aids which depend upon sound for their value and have no direct connection with the preceding visual aids. It is true that some of the visual aids might be used in conjunction with sound aids with thoroughly desirable results. Such combinations of aids will depend almost entirely upon the ability of the teacher to recognize the elements in each which should be combined for effective results. The discussions which follow will concern those combinations of pictures and sound which depend upon positive synchronization for their effectiveness. The Sound Filmslide The sound filmslide might be termed a combination of the ordinary filmslide and the phonograph record or transcription, which were discussed earlier. The sound filmslide is composed of two major parts. One part is the series of still pictures printed on 35 mm. motion-picture positive for projection by use of a filmslide projector. Such a strip of film may include any desired number of frames or individual pic- tures. The other part is the recorded sound which illustrates or ex- plains the picture series. This combination of sound and picture is projected and reproduced by means of a simple instrument, one section of which projects the picture to a screen before a group and the other which reproduces and amplifies the sound so it may be heard clearly by all members of a group. The sound filmslide, known in the industrial field as the sound strip film or filmstrip, has been developed by industry for sales and edu- cational purposes. A central agency may prepare and record a discussion of new models, new sales plans, the story of a product, or any one of hundreds of other topics and distribute the resulting sound filmstrip to dozens or hundreds of branch offices or sales- men for use simultaneously. It is really a convenient means of com- munication when either a long or short story must be told effectively. The sound filmslide is used by all types of industries largely within 156