Cine-film projection : a practical manual for users of all types of 16-mm. and narrow gauge film pro (1952)

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Dangers of Mutilation All film should be wound on the spools, reasonably tight, and never allowed to trail on the floor or to touch anything else, and on no account should the film be handled except by its edges. If it is wound loosely it will skid when pulled from the spool, and the surface may thereby be damaged. Loose film also allows dust to settle on its surface, and will definitely increase the damage when the film is used. Fig. 14 16-mm. film. Sound film has only one row of perforations, and cannot, therefore, be used on silent machines fitted with double sprocket (teeth) rows. (Enlarged reproduction). When making up a programme which requires a number of films to be joined together, care must be taken not to cut into the sound track. Every time a film is joined it loses a part of its length, so guard against this form of damage by using a piece of blank spacing between each separate film to be joined. If possible, remove the leaders of a film by carefully separating the joins, and then add your blank spacing without cutting the film which provides the picture or sound. The blank spacing is merely a length of perfectly black film, and a piece about six inches in length should be used to separate the different films (not parts) which have to be joined. The leaders of each film or part of a film which come first on the spool must be left intact, and this also applies to the last part of a film—the trailer. You will notice that each library film has two different kinds of leaders attached to them. The first leader is a length of white-opaque film used for threading the film in the projector, and this is the only part of the film which may be removed, and replaced, by the operator when making up a programme. Between that leader and the first picture-frame is another leader 61