Cine-film projection : a practical manual for users of all types of 16-mm. (1952)

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its moisture-content and free surface particles, after which it should give no more trouble and ceases to be a green print. But remember, when slackening gate-pressure, that you must re-adjust the pressure very carefully, afterwards re-setting it at normal pressure for subsequent films. If you find that you are unable to adjust gate-pressure and the picture has the jumps, try partially opening the gate. Other methods of curing jumpy pictures caused by green stock are (a) to wax the gate side-pressure rails, and (b) to apply a faint smear of oil to the outer edges of the film. Note that the author does not recommend either method. Film libraries should adopt the general practice of w T axing all films before sending them out. The faint specks which may be seen on the screen during pro- jection are the results of the "grain" in the film, and for many years this has been the subject of extensive research by the manu- facturers. A very fine grain stock, however, is now available and is in general use for making 16-mm. prints. Protecting Films All films are affected by heat, and those which have been allowed to dry thoroughly eventually become brittle, and will crack when run through a projector. The moisture content in the films can be preserved by keeping the film tightly wound on the spool, and the spool kept in its can when not in use. An extra precaution is provided by the use of special airtight cans incorporating an absorbant disc moistened by a humidifying solution, but this should not be overdone, especially in view of the fact that the air is usually damp in certain parts of the country. Scratches appear on the screen in the form of black lines giving the appearance of rain, and in all such cases the fault lies with the operator who failed to keep his projector clean or the film covered. It should be remembered that all projectors draw in a certain amount of dust, and this is especially so in the case of projectors fitted with a forced air-cooling system. The dust mixes with the minute scrapings of emulsion-dust, and before long will build up into hard little lumps capable of scratching a film throughout its length. Good operators make a point of quickly cleaning the gate after each spool during a show. 63