Sound motion pictures : from the laboratory to their presentation (1929)

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CHAPTER III STANDARD SOUND DEVICES I. Introductory Before I explain, or even classify, the more important devices at present available, I must offer some general information. I shall make no reference to the fundamental theory. That belongs to the realm of the physicist, and its technical nature forbids inclusion in a text like the present. I am concerned with the facts as they may be ob- served by a clear intelligence and a somewhat more than average training. I am concerned with the applications that have been and are being made, right in the industry. The word "sound," as we shall use it, has the special meaning of mechanically recorded and reproduced vibra- tions received by the ear while the eye is following a mo- tion picture. Similarly, the terms "synchronism" or "synchronization" will be defined as the timing of such sounds to be simultaneous with the visual images they accompany. For example, the photographed movement of the lips in speech is not preceded or followed but absolutely accompanied by the auditory impression of words heard. The same is true of singing, of the playing of an instrument, of dancing in beat to music, etc. There are two ways of effecting this simultaneity. The first, and the easier to understand, is the playing of a disk record in coordination with the unwinding of the usual familiar film. The second is quite different. It utilizes only film, but not the familiar kind. Or, at least, it is the usual picture film with something added. The new part, most 37